گنبد علویان در چهار باغ علویان در نزدیکی میدان امامزاده عبدالله شهر همدان قرار دارد. این اثر یکی از شاهکارهای معماری و گچبری بعد از اسلام در همدان است، و طی شماره ۹۴ در تاریخ ۱۵/۱۰/۱۳۱۰ در فهرست آثار ملی به ثبت رسیدهاست.
بر اساس شناسنامه فنی بنا، این گنبد یکی از یادمانهای متعلق به اواخر دوره سلجوقیان در قرن ششم هجری است که توسط خاندان علویان ابتدا به عنوان مسجد احداث شده بودهاست. در دورههای بعد با ایجاد سردابی در زیر زمین به مقبره آن خاندان تبدیل گردیدهاست. خاقانی به کنایه از آن به عنوان گنبد سبز یاد نمودهاست و فرهنگ عامیانه مردم استان همدان نیز بر این امر دلالت دارد .
دوستان عزیز ، مقدمتان گل باران
آرامگاه باباطاهر عریان مربوط به دوره معاصر است و در همدان، میدان باباطاهر واقع شده و این اثر در تاریخ ۲۱ اردیبهشت ۱۳۷۶ با شمارهٔ ثبت ۱۸۷۰ بهعنوان یکی از آثار ملی ایران به ثبت رسیدهاست .
باباطاهر که حدوداً در اواخر قرن چهارم و اوایل قرن پنجم میزیسته، از شعرا و عرفای بزرگ روزگار خویش است. بیشتر دوران زندگی او در فقر گذشت. او یکی از مشهورترین دوبیتی سرایان ایرانی است که گذشت زمان نتوانسته دوبیتیهای شورانگیزش را که با لهجه زبان لکی سروده شدهاست از یادها بزداید. از بابا طاهر علاوه بر دوبیتیها آثار ادبی دیگری نیز به جا ماندهاست که از آن جمله میتوان به دو قطعه، چند غزل، مجموعه کلمات قصار عربی و کتابی به نام سرانجام اشاره نمود. بابا طاهر در مجموعه کلمات قصار عربی، عقاید عرفانی خود را علم معرفت و ذکر و عبادت و وجد و محبت بیان کردهاست که مشتمل بر ۴۲۰ ذکر عارفانه در پنجاه باب و همراه با خاتمهای در موضوعات متفرقه است. کتاب سرانجام وی مشتمل بر دو بخش است که بخش نخست آن رسالهای است که با کلمات قصار در عقاید عرفاً و صوفیان و بخش دوم نیز رسالهای است به نام (الفتوحات الربانی فی اشارات الهمدانی) که گویا شارح آن جانی بیک همدانی است. در محوطه داخلی این آرامگاه ۲۴ دو بیتی بر روی ۲۴ قطعه سنگ زیبا حک شده و در قسمت پایین اطراف محوطه داخلی مزار نصب شدهاست. از باباطاهر علاوه بر دو بیتیهایش آثار ادبی دیگری نیز بجا ماندهاست که میتوان به دو قطعه و چند غزل و کتابی با عنوان «سرانجام» اشاره کرد.
مهمانان گرامی ، مقدمتان گل باران
شیخ الرئیس بوعلی سینا یا آرامگاه بوعلی سینا بنای یادبود شیخالرئیس ابن
سینا فیلسوف، دانشمند و طبیب مشهور ایرانی است که در میدان بوعلی سینا در
مرکز شهر همدان واقع شدهاست و این اثر در تاریخ ۲۱ اردیبهشت ۱۳۷۶ با
شمارهٔ ثبت ۱۸۶۹ بهعنوان یکی از آثار ملی ایران به ثبت رسیده است .
بنای آرامگاه بوعلی سینا در زمان قاجاریه ساخته شد. این مقبره به دستور دختری به نام نگار، نوه فتحعلی شاه، بنا شد.در سال ۱۳۳۰ انجمن آثار ملی ایران به مناسبت هزارمین سالروز تولد ابوعلی سینا تصمیم به ساخت آرامگاهی جدید گرفت. طرح و نقشه بنای فعلی توسط مهندس هوشنگ سیحون به سبک معماری دوره و سدهای که بوعلی سینا در آن میزیسته از روی قدیمیترین بنای تاریخ دار اسلامی یعنی برج گنبد قابوس در شهر گنبد کاووس اقتباس شدهاست.کار ساخت بنای جدید آرامگاه در سال ۱۳۳۳ هجری شمسی به پایان رسید. محل آرامگاه جدید بوعلی منزل مسکونی و مقبره فردی بنام ابوسعید دخوک، دوست صمیمی بوعلی سینا بودهاست که بقایای جسد بوعلی سینا هم به این مکان منتقل و دفن شد. در غرفه آثار بوعلی عکسی از جمجه بوعلی نیز در معرض دید گذاشته شده که هنگام جابجایی مقبره تهیه شدهاست.
دوستان عزیز و ارجمند
مهمان های گرامی که تصمیم دارند به شهر همدان سفر کنند در هر موقعیت زمانی سوالی داشتید میتوانید مطرح کنید و یا نیاز به راهنما و همراه حضوری نیاز داشتند می توانند اعلام کنند در صورت خالی بودن وقت در خدمتتان هستم
با آرزوی سفر خوب و به یاد ماندنی
Hamadan (Hamedan) province is situated in a mountainous area in the centre of western Iran. Mt. Alvand is tallest peak in the province at 3,574m and with much of the area located well over 1,700m above sea level, it has the coldest and longest winters in the whole of Iran. A cool and pleasant summer climate does however attract tourists escaping from the intense heat elsewhere.
One of the most famous natural attractions in Iran, the Ali Sadr Cave, is situated approximately 100km north of Hamadan City. The cave is in fact a sealed underground lake of crystal clear water, quite unlike river caves whose water flows out through an exit. Thus the cave is completely devoid of plant or animal life.
Discovered by chance by a shepherd around 40 years ago, 14km of caves have now been explored with 4km now arranged for tourists to explore by boat and on foot. The main chamber is 100m across at its widest and has a ceiling 40m high with the second largest not much smaller than this one, making Ali Sadr Cave, the largest water cave in the world.
With numerous stalactites and stalagmites (some over 10m tall) and walls covered with mineral deposits unique to this cave, visitors are surrounded by scenes of magic and splendour. An artificial entranceway which once guided water out of the cave to the surface bears an inscription dating back to the reign of Darius I (521-485 BC).
Assyrian inscriptions dating back to 1100 BC mention, Hangmatana, the ancient name of Hamadan but the city had almost certainly been populated since the 3rd millennium BC making it the oldest city in Iran and one of the oldest in the world. It was here in 673 BC that the first Median capital was established under the name of Ecbatana, meaning "place of assembly".
From 549 BC, after he last of the Median kings had been defeated by Cyrus the Great, the city became the summer capital of the Achaemenid kings who would come here to escape the baking heat of Susa.
The Greek historian Herodotus wrote that, at the height of its glory, Ecbatana was a shining jewel of the ancient world with buildings plated with precious metals and seven layers of city walls, the inner two being coated in silver and gold. From the time of Alexander, the city suffered many invasions and lost much of its wealth and importance though it remained the summer capital during Parthian and Sassanid times.
The city was captured by the Arabs in 644 and its name was changed to Hamadan. For several centuries it prospered as a commercial hub and provincial capital. In the latter half of the 12th century the Seljuks made Hamadan their capital and so it remained for fifty years until 1220 when the city was destroyed by the armies of Tamerlane.
In the following centuries, wars with the Ottoman Empire caused further destruction and as a result, little remains of the city that predates its partial reconstruction in the 17th century. The modern city of Hamadan was built according to a plan by the German architect Karl Fritsch with six avenues radiating like the spokes of a wheel from a central square.
The only remaining relic of the ancient history of Hamadan, this 2.5m long stone statue of a lion, now badly eroded by time, has been tentatively dated as far back as Median times. It has also been said that the statue may have been commissioned by Alexander the Great in the 4th century BC to mark the grave of his general and friend Hephaiston who died in Hamadan. It is now situated in a park in the south east part of the city.
Avicenna is the name by which the great Persian scientist and philosopher Ibn Sina is known in the West. During his lifetime he wrote 450 books on a wide range of subjects and is considered by many to be the father of modern medicine.
Avicenna died in 1037 near Hamadan. The current construction dates back to 1952, its predecessor having been destroyed by an earthquake in 1948. The tower design was inspired by the Gonbad-e Kabus funerary tower which is located in the city of the same name in Mazandaran Province, northeast Iran. The tower houses a small museum dedicated to his life and works. Beside the grave of Avicenna is the grave of his great friend Abu Said.
According to legend, this is the last resting place of Esther, the Jewish princess and wife of Xerxes I, along with her uncle Mordechai who, it is said, persuaded the king to allow Jewish colonies to be established throughout the Persian Empire.
However, the shrine has also been attributed to a much later Jewish Queen of the Sassanid period who persuaded her husband Yazdegerd I to establish a Jewish colony in Hamadan in the early 5th century AD. The construction is a simple brick building on a square plan that dates from some time between 13th and 17th century.
The architectural style reflects that of Islamic shrines but bears inscriptions in Hebrew from the Torah and the Ten Commandments. Situated alongside the tomb is a synagogue and a Jewish cemetery.
A 12th century Seljuk mausoleum belonging to the Alavi family though whose grave it houses is unknown. The interior is decorated with stucco carved with arabesques and inscriptions in Kufic which are considered some of the most beautiful of the Seljuk Period.
Though the original domed roof has not survived, the tomb is still a fine example Seljuk architecture and is similar in style to the Gombad-e Sorgh ("Red Tower"), in Maragheh, East Azerbaijan.
20km from Hamadan, high in the Alvand mountains are two cuneiform inscriptions, each in the Ancient Persian, New Elamite and New Babylonian languages, carved side by side on a large granite stone. The left hand inscription tells of the conquests of the the Achaemenid King Darius I (522-486BC) and gives thanks to the god Ahuramazda who bestowed upon him the right to rule.
An identical inscription can be found at the gates of the Apadana Palace at Persepolis. The second inscription is identical in content to the first but instead tells of Xerxes I (486-465BC), son of Darius. Before these inscriptions were translated it was believed that they contained instructions directing the reader to the location of undiscovered treasures of the Achaemenid Empire, hence the name Ganj Nameh which means "treasure letter". The inscriptions are located on a mountain pass that merchants on the Silk Road would have seen on their travels.
Area: 19,445 km2
A fertile province in the middle of western Iran, Hamadan is cold from September to May, with a lot of snow in the higher regions. Hamadan province is multicultural, populated with more Kurds, Lors and Turks than Persians. According to one legend, Hamadan was founded by the mythical King Jamshid. The High Lights:
city of Hekmataneh
city has been inhabited since at least the 2nd millennium BC. Under Cyrus the Great, it became the Median capital in the 6th century BC, when the city was known as Ecbatana or Hegmatane ('meeting place'). When it reached the height of its glory as the summer capital of the Aebtiemenian empire (559-330 BC), Hamadan-was described as one of the most opulent cities, with splendid palaces, building: plated with precious metals and seven layers of town walls, the inner two of which were coated in gold and silver.
These glorious riches naturally attracted hordes of invading armies. Hamadan faded in importance after the Arab Conquest in the mid-7th century but became the regional capital under the Seljuqs for some 60 years in the late 12th century he city was devastated by the Mongols in 1220 and again by Teimur in 1386 but soon returned to relative prosperity and remained so until the 18th century. Hamadan then fell into a serious decline and suffered from an invasion by the Turks, from which the city did not recover until the mid 19th century.
Ali Sina (Avicenna)
The great Bu Ali Sina was born in the village of Khormassin in 980,and revered during his lifetime as a philosopher and physician. He is more commonly known in the west as Avicenna, the name under which his widely respected medical encyclopedia was published in Europe. He died in Hamadan in 1037.
The most important Jewish pilgrimage site in Iran, this is believed to contain the bodies of Esther, the Jewish wife of Xerxes I, who is credited with organizing the first Jewish emigration to Persist in the 5th century, and her uncle Mordecai.
This well-preserved 12th century mausoleum of the Alavi family - the pre-eminent family in the town during most of the Seljuq period (1051-1220)-is probably the most noteworthy monument in Hamadan it is interesting for the outstanding quality or its stucco ornamentation, with whirling floral motifs on the exterior- walls and intricate geometric designs on its Mehrab, the tombs are in the crypt, reached by a spiral staircase.
This famous l4th century stone lion in the square of he same name in south-east Hamadan, is the only distinct, visible monument of the ancient city, Ecbatana. It originally guarded a city gate and may have been carved at the behest of Alexander the Great. Avicent a Memorial Obviously modeled on the magnificent Gonbad-e Kavus tower near Gorgltn, this dominating structure was built as recently as 1954, in memory of Bu Ali Sina.
Some ruins of the ancient city can be seen around this extensive plot of land. Some small items found here, and elsewhere in Hamadan, have been put on display in the museum in the centre of the site, but most are in the National Museum of Iran in Tehran. Currently undergoing extensive excavations and renovations, the complex is Alisadr Caves.
Caves, discovered only 40 years ago by a local shepherd looking for a lost goat, are up to 40m high, and contain several huge lakes with clear water up to 8m deep. Nothing lives in the water - surprisingly bats don't even find it worth hanging around here and there are no signs of any inhabitants from past centuries. These caves are the longest watery caves of the world.